what is an antique print - preservation of art on paper techniques

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Abbreviation Meaning
A.f. Etched by
A.P. Artist’s proof
Appresso Published by
Apud Published by
Aquaforti fecit, aquaforti,
Aquaf., Aq.
Etched by
Aquatinta, aq:tinta Aquatinted by
A.V. Augusta Vindelicorum; that is,
published in Augsburg, Germany
Bon á tirer, B.A.T. Proof print for use by the printer
Caelavit, cael. Engraved by
Chez At the house of
Composuit Drawn by, referring to drawing from which
the engraver, lithographer, etc. worked
Cum privilegio Privilege to publish from some authority
Delineavit, delin., delt., del. Drawn by (cf. composuit)
Descripsit Drawn by (cf. composuit)
Designavit, desig. Drawn by (cf. composuit)
Dessiné Drawn by (cf. composuit)
Direxit, direx. Directed by (head of workshop)
Divulgavit, divulg. Published by
Dressé(e) Drawn by (cf. composuit)
Écrit Written by (lettering)
Effigiavit, effig. Drawn by (cf. composuit)
Engd., Eng. Engraved by
Épreuve d’Artiste, E.A. Artist’s proof
Ex coll. From the collection of
Excudit, excud., exct., exc. Printed by; published by
Ex Officina From the workshop of
Ex Typis From the printing house of
Faciebat, fac. Made by
Fecit, fec., f. Made by
Figuravit, fig. Drawn by (usually after an original painting)
Formis At the press of
Gezeichnet, gez. Drawn by (cf. composuit)
Gravé Engraved by
Gravure Engraving
Hors Commerce, H.C. Not for sale; outside the regular commercial run
Impressit, imp. Printed by
Incidit, incidebat, incid., inc. Engraved by
Inventor, invenit, invt., inv., in. Designed by (original work)
Lithog., litho., lith. Lithographed by (either drawn on stone
or lithographic publisher)
Maculature A second impression taken from a matrix without re-inking
On stone by Drawn on lithographic stone by
Pinxit, pins., pictor, ping. Painted by (original work)
Scripsit, scrip. Engraved text
Sculpsit, sculpt., sculp., sc. Engraved by
Sumptibus At the expense of
Zusammengetragen Compiled by

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