“Johnson’s New Military Map of the United States showing the Forts, Military Posts &c. With Enlarged Plans of Southern Harbors From Authentic Data Obtained at the War Department Washington.” New York: Johnson & Ward, 1864. 17 1/2 x 23 3/4. Lithograph. Full original hand-color. Small spot below title and a few in margins. Overall, very good condition.
During the Civil War, the military situation in the United States was, naturally, of great interest to the readers of Johnson’s atlas, so the firm of Johnson & Ward added this “New Military Map.” The focus is on the situation of all the U.S. forts and posts throughout the country, including those in the South. As an important element in the war was the access to maritime trade, with the Union blockade of Southern ports, the firm also put in nine inset maps of various southern harbors, running from Baltimore to New Orleans.
The political division of the United States is also of interest in this map. Up to 1860, the increased population of settlers in the trans-Mississippi west created considerable pressure to create new territories there, but the debate over whether these would be free or slave territories prevented Congress from acting. As soon as the Southern Congressmen left, when their states succeeded, Northern Congressmen could pass what they wanted and three new territories were created in 1861. Then in 1863, because of gold rush emigration, the new territory of Idaho was created from the eastern part of the old Oregon Territory and the western part of Dakota Territory. That same year, the territory of Arizona was established to the west of New Mexico Territory. All of these new territories are shown on this map.